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Quartz movement and the principle of mechanical movement
Jan 22, 2018

The core of the quartz crystal sensor is the sensing element, piezoelectric quartz crystal, the working principle of the piezoelectric effect of quartz crystal, which in some direction by mechanical stress, will produce electric dipole; on the contrary, if subjected to a voltage in quartz in one direction, the specific direction will produce deformation, this phenomenon is called for the inverse piezoelectric effect. If applied alternating electric field on quartz crystal, crystal lattice will produce mechanical vibration. When the frequency of external electric field is consistent with the natural oscillation frequency of crystal, the resonance of crystal will appear. Because the electric field intensity of quartz crystal under pressure is very small, it only needs a very weak external electric field to produce deformation. This characteristic makes piezoelectric quartz crystal easily generate resonance under the excitation of external alternating electric field. Its oscillation energy loss is small, and the oscillation frequency is very stable. These coupled with the excellent mechanical, electrical and chemical stability of quartz made it become a frequency reference element related to digital circuits since 40s, such as quartz clock, electronic watch, telephone, TV, computer and so on.

A hair bar is a part that provides energy for a watch. The circle is circled in a box. Use the milling square slot on the shaft to tighten the hair. The square groove of the bar shaft is driven by the upper bar mechanism. The watch can go about 36 to 50 hours when the watch is free. As the hair rod is subjected to obvious stress, it often causes fracture. Therefore, at present, the alloy material is used to make the hair almost not broken. The rod stores a certain amount of energy and distributive to the oscillator in a uniform and small amount. To this end, the energy provided by the wheel column group, by the same proportion of the wheel set to reduce the transmission force at the same time increase the number of rings. The wheel set consists of 4 wheels and 4 gears, and the rear 3 wheels are riveted on the first 3 gears. In this sketch, the slash represents the meshing between the moving parts, while the horizontal line is riveted on the same axis. The first wheel is a box wheel with a circumferential milling tooth.  The last wheel is an escapement gear, and the escapement is riveted on the gear. The escapement wheel belongs to the distribution mechanism and counter. The box turns a circle for about 6 hours. During this period, the escapement gear and the escapement rotation are about 3600 laps. This number represents the rotational frequency ratio between the first wheel and the last wheel. The ratio is always within this numerical range. Usually try to make the gear and the wheel in the center of the watch, and turn a circle every hour.

The quartz watch is also called the "crystal vibratory electronic meter", because it is the "vibration phenomenon" of the use of crystal. When the crystal receives the external voltage, it will have the character of deformation and expansion. On the contrary, if the crystal is compressed, it will generate electricity at both ends of the crystal. This property can also be seen on many crystals, which is called "piezoelectric effect". The quartz watch is the crystal that uses periodic "vibration" to bring us the exact time. First, the quartz crystal in the quartz watch is electrified, and the crystal will vibrate correctly at the number of cycles of 32768 Hz. Then the frequency must be converted to the number of signal currents of 1Hz (a change in current between one second). More signal amplitude (because the current caused by vibration is weak), along with some current signal and then launch the rotor gear, the table on the second hand will start, after a minute, the principle of the beating are about clockwise on the mechanical structure such as: second hand 60 beats, the needle will jump into.

All quartz watches are equipped with a battery. It provides energy for an integrated circuit and a quartz resonator, and vibrate 327678 times a second. And it's faster than that. The integrated circuit is the "brain" of the table. It controls the vibration of the quartz resonator and plays the role of the frequency divider. The 32768 vibration is half divided 15 times to produce a pulse per second. We have a second, this time the "raw material", will be able to drive the display


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